ADOPTING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TO LAW PRACTICE IN NIGERIA. ABSTRACT. Impressive advances in artificial intelligence technology tailored for legal work have led some lawyers to worry that their profession may be Silicon valley’s next victim. But recent research and even the people working on the software say to automate legal work and the adoption of AI in law firms will be a slow, task-by-task process. In other words, like it or not, a robot is not, about to replace lawyers in Nigeria. At least, not anytime soon. INTRODUCTION. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has come a long way since John McCarthy, the father of AI, coined the term back in 1955. For lawyers, this cutting-edge and rapidly changing field of science can be intimidating and downright befuddling. In general terms, Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science where machines mimic human intelligence. Advances in technology blend into the existing framework of most professions and law is no exception. Some aspect of law practice will change, such as the legal research tools lawyers use, while others would not change as much, as the legal system in general. However, there is little dispute that Artificial Intelligence solutions for the practice of law can enable firms in Nigeria to perform at a higher level in terms of productivity and efficiency. Almost certainly AI will make a more significant impact regarding judiciary recommendation based on vast amounts of data from complex state and federal regulations and legal decision in Nigeria. ADOPTING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. As with any new technology, questions arise regarding best practice use cases. Will the people lose job to machines? Will they affect our behavior and interaction with one another? Will they make critical mistake and if they do, how do we learn to guard against them? Today, we speak about machines as if they are sentient “beings” like T-1000 from “Terminator 2”. But instead of replacing humans, artificial intelligence is meant to reinforce and enhance what humans do. For example, AI is transforming the legal profession in many ways, freeing lawyers and legal staff to concentrate on higher-level tasks such as negotiating deals, appearing in court and advising clients. Legal research and document review can be performed using AI tools, eliminating the mundanes and often monotonous tasks of searching through and analyzing multiple documents and contracts, work that paralegals, legal researchers and litigators dread and clients no longer wish to pay for. Also, while the ever-increasing need for speed in response to clients and the courts puts enormous strain on lawyers, AI can analyze information more thoroughly, in less time and with fewer mistakes, reducing lawyer’s stress and burnout. AI-powered software can efficiently and quickly; A). Produce statistically validated results with more accuracy and speed than their human counterpart. B). Research and evaluate holdings of prior cases and review documents for discoverable information referred to as Technology Assisted Review (TAR). C). Identify risks and issues that may take skilled attorney days to find. D). With access to years of trial data, AI can make much more accurate predictions about outcomes of legal proceedings. E). Confirms facts and figures and analyze document for missing information, errors and inconsistent language. F). Sort through contracts quicker and with fewer errors than humans. AI systems, like those offered by ROSS Intelligence, leverage natural language processing (NLP) to help analyze documents. This technology allows AI systems to take everyday language and spoken or written words and turn them into concepts and entities and structures data. The advantages in terms of potential time and cost savings are enormous. AI technology is only a small part of the overall solutions for law firms in Nigeria. Successfully integration also include a foundation of structured and relevant data, defined processes and procedures, a willingness to interact and understand the AI system, a flexible internal culture open to change and growth and the necessary skills and technical knowledge to support AI system and their users. Moreover, while AI may offer lawyers leading data-driven tools to provide efficient and impactful legal counsel to clients generate forecast of litigation outcomes, determine trends and patterns from past case and more, AI is still not a substitute for a lawyer’s own instinct, judgement and personal rapport with clients. For instance, computers cannot perform tasks that require emotional intelligence and they cannot counsel in a court room. It is also pertinent to reiterate that AI enhances, rather than replacing the work done by lawyers and AI and legal technology will not automate lawyers out of existence anytime soon. AI’s ability to perform discrete tasks does not extend to the far-ranging skill sets that attorneys bring to their practice. The real value of law firms, lawyers and staff is in combining the efficiency of AI applications with the expertise, emotional intelligence and creativity of lawyers. CONCLUSION. For Nigeria Law firms that embrace AI, legal work will become more methodical and efficient. It is up to each firms to shepherd in new AI technology to realize the greatest benefits. Those that commit to reduce manual-and-labour intensive tasks, higher customer retention, reduced costs and more accurate decisions and work output will no doubt rise above law practice that choose to remain in the status quo, as AI systems make it easier for law firms to gain a strategic advantage in the industry. ABOUT THE AUTHOR. MUSA OMMA-AGBON ZAIKI is a contemporary writer, an altruistic advocate and a law student of the University of Calabar, Calabar.

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Call for Writers and Editors. Gani Fawehinmi Chambers of Justice is Calling for writers and Editors who are interested in joining the Editorial board of the chambers,please contact the Principal Counsel -Mina Atambi – 0691438052.

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Is it advisable for Law students to Venture into entrepreneurship too?? Before actually starting my entrepreneurial journey, the notion of starting my own business was exciting. A million naira isn’t cool, you know what’s cool? A billion naira. In reality, entrepreneurship, at least in my experience, involves more lows than highs, lots of late nights. Entrepreneurship is not glamorous, but it is still exciting. We get it, law school is tough, and finding a job after is even more difficult. And yet, despite the chronic cloud of unemployment hanging over the heads of law students, entrepreneurship is rarely discussed in law schools. First, law students are in a better position than most people to start their own business. The more education a person has, the more risk-tolerant that individual is. In other words, if a law student or lawyer attempts a business venture and fails (which is statistically likely), she is more likely to have a back-up plan: I can always be a lawyer!. Second, law students have unique skills that are conducive to entrepreneurship. Law students obviously excel in reading, writing, and research, but they also are trained to think critically and analyze problems. Even more so, law students are (generally) very determined. Businesses start as an idea, but that is the easy part. To actually take an idea and make it into a business, an entrepreneur must put in weeks, months, if not years, of time and effort (and money) to make their dream a reality. This process requires an unwavering sense of self-confidence and determination. In other words, how long are you willing to put in the work to make your idea come to life? The truth is we have millions of Lawyers in the world and millions of people who cannot afford or access legal services. This unfortunate reality can be interpreted in many ways, but for the entrepreneurs of the world, this fact is synonymous with opportunity. Law students have the unique opportunity to learn how our legal system really works, thus rare understanding is empowering. By combining legal knowledge with an entrepreneurial spirit, a new frontier may be on the horizon for legal services. This frontier not only offers diverse (and potentially lucrative) career opportunities, but it also will give law student entrepreneurs the chance to drive change and help those in need. What could be more meaningful than that? So should law students be entrepreneurs? I don’t see why not. Law students have plenty of incentives to consider entrepreneurship. Of course, entrepreneurship is not easy, but neither is law school. All it takes is an idea and some butt power. After all, if your business drive fails, you can always be a lawyer☺️ From the desk of an entrepreneurial minded Law student, ATAMBI THANKGOD PHILOMINA.

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Can Law students be entrepreneurs?? What do you think? Please write to us

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*Excerpts from G.F.C.J* (Feed your mind) Fawehinmi was not everything to everybody. You either liked him passionately or hated him intensely. This was because of his boundless and sometimes suicidal energy with which he tenaciously and uncompromisingly pursued and crusaded his beliefs, principles and ideals for the untrammeled rule of law, undiluted democracy, all-embracing and expansive social justice, the protection of fundamental human rights and respect for the hopes and aspirations of the masses who are victims of misgovernance. While Ganiyu was in secondary school, his headteacher wrote a note to his father stating that the young Fawehinmi would make a brilliant lawyer, and after secondary school he travelled to Britain in 1961 to read law at Holborn College, University of London. Before he could complete his second undergraduate year his father died, however and his source of finance quickly dried up. He worked as a toilet cleaner to finance his degree. He was called to the bar in 1965 and quickly set up a practice in Lagos. The practice soon grew and he became a mentor to many left-learning lawyers and academics. His friends and allies included the celebrated musician Fela Kuti and his human-rights crusading brother, the late Beko Ransome-Kuti. But controversially, Fawehinmi supported the candidature of a former Nigerian military ruler, General Mohammed Buhari in the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections. Fawehinmi had fought Buhari over human rights abuses when the general was in power in the early 1980s. In 1993, Fawehinmi was awarded the biennial Bruno Kreisky Prize, an honour given to international figures who have advanced human rights causes. In 1998, he received the International Bar Association’s Bernard Simmons Award in recognition of his human rights and pro-democracy work. In 1994, he and some other notable Nigerians formed the National Conscience Party of Nigeria and he stood for the 2003 presidential election in 2003 under its aegis. But Fawehinmi was more than an activist; he was also a philanthropist and a sharp legal mind. He gave scholarships to many poor Nigerian students and revolutionised law reportage in Nigeria with the establishment of the Nigerian Weekly Law Reports in the late 1980s, the publication becoming a valuable tool for law students and practitioners alike. He was elevated to the rank of Senior Advocate of Nigeria (SAN), the highest legal title in Nigeria in September 2001. In 2008, he rejected one of the highest national honours, the Order of the Federal Republic, in protest at the many years of misrule since Nigeria’s independence. GANI FAWEHINMI CHAMBERS OF JUSTICE UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR was formed in order to advocate for what is right in the society, uphold justice and seeks to raise a generation of the best that exist, we dream and dare to see a time when GANITES would be effectively placed in vital and strategic places in our country, to carry out the change which is much desired and with hardwork and our steadfastness we would achieve all this and even more in time. Let us all join hands to take this Chambers to a new level and an era of effective change, growth and productivity. hoc unitum stabit!! NOBLE GANITES! _From the table of the Principal Counsel,_ _Atambi ThankGod Philomina,_ _GFCJ UCC._

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EXCERPTS FROM GANI•••••••••••••••••••What would I have to prove to win a negligence case in court? You would have to show three things: 1. That the person owed you a duty of care 2. That the person did something or failed to do something that a reasonable person in the same circumstances wouldn’t have done. 3. That you suffered some harm or loss because of what the person did or didn’t do. If you are considering suing for personal injury, you may need to have your injury assessed by a doctor before you think about going to court. The doctor will need to establish what level of impairment your injury has resulted in because you cannot get compensation for any injuries unless you have a certain level of impairment. Excerpts from Gani Fawehinmi Chambers Of Justi

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Do I owe a duty of care to anyone??🤔 Yes. If your actions are reasonably likely to affect someone else, then you owe them a duty of care. This means that you have to take reasonable care to ensure that those people are not harmed or injured as a result of the things you do.

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O MAN KNOW YOUR RIGHT TODAY! Human Rights” has been defined as the “inalienable rights of people”. They are the legal entitlements which every citizen should enjoy without fear of the government or other fellow citizens. They are said to be the rights which cannot be said to have been given to man by man but are earned by man for being a human because they are necessary for his continuous happy existence with himself, his fellow man and for participation in a complex society (David Kaluge, Human Rights Abuse (2013). Some Nigerians are confused as to what rights they are entitled to as citizens and often confuse what their fundamental rights really are. For example, a while back, there was a general outcry against the increased subscription rates imposed by MultiChoice Nigeria for their DSTV viewing packages. Some aggrieved subscribers went as far as to say the increase in subscription rates was an abuse of their fundamental rights as citizens of Nigeria. Errr…. In Nigeria, citizens enjoy many rights but the inalienable fundamental rights of citizens are statute-protected by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Chapter IV of the Constitution lists out the basic Fundamental Human Rights enjoyed by citizens of the country. The Right to Watch Satellite Television is, unfortunately, not part of that list. The Fundamental Rights of Nigerians under Chapter IV of the Constitution are as follows: The Right to Life Under the Constitution, every person has a right to life and no one shall be intentionally deprived of his life. The Constitution, however, provides exceptions where violation of this Right is acceptable: Where the taking of the life is in execution of a sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence in which the person has been found guilty in Nigeria. Where the loss of life is as a result of the use of such force as is reasonably necessary and in such circumstances as permitted by law: for the defence of any person from unlawful violence or defence of property; in order to make a lawful arrest or prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained; or for the purpose of suppressing a riot, insurrection or mutiny. Aside from the above circumstances, any violation of a person’s right to life is an abuse of that person’s fundamental rights and is usually found in torture and extra-judicial killings. For example, the activities of the terror group, Boko Haram, involving the rootless attacks and murder of civilians. The Right to Dignity of Human Person Every person is entitled to respect of his/her dignity. No person shall be subjected to torture or inhuman treatment, be held in slavery or servitude or be required to perform forced or compulsory labour. Examples of abuse and violation of this right can be found in modern day slavery and torture and brutality by law enforcement officers. An example of an abuse of this right can be found in 2013, when one Lawal Ganiyu, 50 years old, was arrested and tortured by the Police over an alleged fraud. As a result of the brutal treatment, he was comatose in a hospital for over a week. This act was a gross violation of his right to dignity of human person under the Nigerian Constitution. Right to Personal Liberty Under the Constitution, every person shall be entitled to his personal liberty and no person shall be deprived of this right except in special circumstances and in accordance with a procedure permitted by law. It is the right not to be subjected to imprisonment, arrest and other physical coercion in any manner that does not have legal justification. The right is the freedom to live as one chooses without too many restrictions or constraints from the government or its agencies. It also assures a person of the freedom to stay or move about at his own will, direction and time. This right has also been defined as freedom from bodily restraint and the right of the person to contract, to engage in any of the common occupations of life, to acquire useful knowledge, to marry to establish a home and bring up children, to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience and generally enjoy those privileges recognized as being essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness. Example of violation of this right can be found in cases of unlawful arrest and detention by Nigeria’s law enforcement agencies. The National Human Rights Commission’s Prison Audit for the year 2012 released in May 2013, showed that out of 173 prisons audited in Nigeria, the number of Awaiting Trial Inmates stood at 35,889. One of the factors that result in the large number of Awaiting Trial Inmates in Nigerian Prisons is the practice of “Holding Charge” where the police charge an accused person usually before a magistrate who does not have jurisdiction to hear and determine the charge against the accused. The Magistrate makes an order for the accused person to be detained in a prison and for the case file to be transferred to the Director of Public Prosecution for advice. The police may fail to transfer the file to the DPP. If the file is transferred, the DPP may fail to proffer advice and formally charge the accused to the court that has jurisdiction or recommend his release. There have even been cases where the case file goes missing. All the while, the accused person is sitting in prison without formally being charged for any offence. The Nigerian Supreme Court has held that Holding Charge is unknown to Nigerian law and an accused person detained under it is entitled to be released on bail within a reasonable time before trial especially in non-capital offences. Unfortunately, despite this, the practice has persisted and there are currently people who have been in prison for months and even years for offences they have yet to be formally charged with. A restriction to the Right of Personal Liberty supported by law can be found in the Same Sex Marriage Prohibition Act of 2013, which prohibits marriage or civil unions between people of the same sex. Right to Fair Hearing The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria guarantees a person the right to fair hearing within a reasonable time by a court or other tribunal established by law in determination of his/her civil rights and obligations including a question or determination by or against any government or authority. The Constitution also provides that the court or tribunal shall be constituted in a manner as to secure its independence and impartiality in determining the said civil rights and obligations. The law goes on to provide that civil proceedings of the court or tribunal shall be held in public and where a person is charged with a criminal offence, he/she shall, unless the charge is withdrawn, also be entitled to fair hearing in public within a reasonable time by the court or tribunal and be presumed innocent until proven guilty. The Right to Fair Hearing is the cornerstone of justice. Right to Private and Family Life This guarantees and protects the right to the privacy of citizens, their homes, correspondence, telephone conversations and telegraphic communications. This right has been described as recognition of the saying that “a man’s home is his castle”. The right guarantees that security agencies should not tap ones phone lines or subject ones house to unwarranted searches or seizure of one’s property. However, there have been instances of violation of this right, particularly cases of police entering people’s homes in the course of arrest of a suspected criminal or investigation of criminal matters without obtaining the proper search warrants. Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion The Constitution provides for secularity in Nigeria, guaranteeing the peoples entitlement to religious freedom including freedom to change religion or belief and manifest and propagate ones religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance. The law also provides: No person attending any place of education shall be required to receive religious instruction or to take part in any religious ceremony relating to a religion not his own. No religious community or denomination shall be prevented from providing religious instruction for pupils of that community or denomination in any place of education maintained wholly by that community or denomination. Nothing in the provision of the Constitution shall entitle any person to form, take part in the activity or be a member of secret society. Despite the constitutional provision, however, there have been frequent reports of human rights abuses among cleric fundamentalists. Nigeria has witnessed many clashes between Christian and Muslim adherents over the years. Right to Freedom of Expression at the Press Every person shall be entitled to freedom of expression including freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart ideas and information without interference. This right, unfortunately, has been used by some people to violate other people’s rights. It brings to mind the words of a great thinker: “Under tyranny, people seek liberty; under liberty, people seek tyranny.” Examples are cases of libel and slander, which is rampant in social media. Soft-sell magazines are also guilty of this violation as some magazines print rumours and unvalidated gossip about celebrities. Right to Peaceful Assembly and Association Every person shall be entitled to assemble freely and associate with other persons and form or belong to any political party, trade union or any other association for the protection of his interest. Disruption of peaceful anti-government rallies by police is a violation of this right to peaceful assembly. The violent disruption of the Occupy Nigeria mass protests against the removal of fuel subsidy in January 2012 by the police and armed personnel is an example of the violation and infringement of the right to peaceful assembly. It should be noted, however, that to hold a peaceful assembly, one must obtain the appropriate permit. The law on public meetings, the Public Order Act, vests the power to regulate public meetings, processions and rallies in any part of Nigeria in the governors of the respective states of the Federation. By virtue of the Act, the police cannot issue a license or permit any meeting or rally without the consent of the governor of the state. They also have no power to cancel any such public meeting or rally without the governor’s consent. Right to Freedom of Movement Every citizen of Nigeria is entitled to move freely throughout Nigeria and to reside in any part thereof and no citizen of Nigeria shall be expelled from Nigeria or refused entry or exit. The Constitution provides exceptions for the violation of this right: Any law imposing restrictions on the residence or movement of any person who has committed a criminal offence in order to prevent him from leaving the country. Any law providing for the removal of any person from Nigeria to another country to be tried outside Nigeria for any criminal offence or to undergo imprisonment outside Nigeria in execution of the sentence of a court of law in respect of a criminal offence he has been found guilty of provided that there is a reciprocal agreement between Nigeria and the other country. Another exception to this right are the environmental sanitation laws which restricts the movement of people before a certain time during the monthly environmental sanitation exercises. Apart from the above exceptions, any restriction on the movement of a person, such as kidnapping, is a violation of that person’s right. Right to Freedom from Discrimination Every citizen shall not be subjected to any form of discrimination, disability or deprivation by reason of to his/her community, ethnic group, place of origin, circumstances of birth, sex, religion or political opinion. Right to Acquire and Own Immovable Property anywhere in Nigeria Every citizen of Nigeria shall have the right to acquire and own immovable property anywhere in Nigeria. Apart from the above listed Fundamental Rights, there many other rights that citizens are entitled to. But it must be stressed that although these rights are there to protect a person’s interest, they should not be used to violate other people’s rights. Where then does one person’s right end and another person’s right begin?

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LL. B 1 Litigation teams

       FESTUS KEYAMU                           vs.                               FEMI FALANA

Aaron Treasure                                                                                   Agbo Margaret Akinkeye

Akwaji, Precious-lily Enegbe                                                           Amadi Darlington

Ategwu Paul                                                                                        Bassey Okokon Ita Chinyeaka Victor Ikenna                                                                                      Danjuma Upii

Egbuta Marvellous Victor                                                                Ebuka Ihedi Chukwu

Ejeje Peace Aboni                                                                              Etcheri Ernest Effiong

Essien Hillary                                                                                    Ezeonu Judith

Ezewere Precious                                                                           Gerald Belonwu (LL. B 2)            Ibiang Patience                                                                           Ibinabo Tamunotoye                       Isong Eugene                                                                              Obasesam Monday                            Obioso Esther                                                                             Odey-Emii Maria Goretti                Odu Michael                                                                                Ogbeche  Rose

Oluchi Otu Deborah                                                                  Okonkwo Sylvia                                  Prince Ebube Chukwuka                                                          Paul Mbia Osang                    Ukweni, Blessing Mba                                                              Ukwoa-Iroegbu

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Holiday Internship

We regrettably announce that the initially scheduled internship for members of the LL. B 2 to LL.B 4 class has been canceled because of the short holiday. The internship was expected to have started on Monday 6th October but we didn’t realise it is a public holiday. Other than that school is resuming on Friday the 10th and it will be unreasonable to start the internship.

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